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In only four cases since 1975 has Congress passed all appropriation bills before the beginning of the fiscal year. In some years, like 1996, inaction led to agencies suspending operations. This year, Congress adopted a six-month Continuing Resolution for all fiscal year 2013 appropriation bills, delaying final decisions until March 31st. What do these kinds of delays mean for how agencies manage their monies and operations? And what effect does it have on grantees and contractors?
Dr. Philip Joyce, a budget expert at the University of Maryland, examines the impact of late budgets on the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations over the past 37 years and identifies useful coping strategies and offers recommendations on how to soften the adverse effects of budget uncertainty.
His report for the IBM Center, The Costs of Budget Uncertainty: Analyzing the Impact of Late Appropriations, is a timely primer for federal managers and provides a useful context based on historical examples of how agencies have responded to Continuing Resolutions and so-called Government Shutdowns in past years.
Just What Is a Continuing Resolution? The President sends his proposed budget for the coming fiscal year to Congress each February. The fiscal year starts about eight months later, on October 1. The Congress divides the budget proposal into 12 separate appropriation bills, so technically, there isn’t one budget, but rather 12 separate budgets that must be passed by Congress and signed by the President before October 1.
If any one of the appropriations bills is not passed, then the agencies and programs covered by a particular bill is potentially subject to “shutdown” if there is not a Continuing Resolution to provide temporary funding. Sometimes Congress is close on an agreement, so a Continuing Resolution (also called a “CR”) may be for only a few days until it passed a bill and the President signs it. Sometimes the CR is extended multiple times. And sometimes there is a longer-term CR, even covering the remainder of the fiscal year.
A CR oftentimes just continues the funding levels and programs from the prior year, but there are instances where Congress includes special provisions, for example the Department of Veterans Affairs, because of rising hospital and benefit caseloads, would be permitted to spend at a higher level.
Appropriations have been late and CRs have been used for more than 135 years. Prior to 1980, even if they were not enacted, agencies would typically operate under the assumption that Congress did not actually intend for the government to shut down. But that year, an attorney general decision concluded that continued operations were unconstitutional, so CRs became more important.
There are cases where Congress and the President cannot agree on a CR and in those cases, agencies and programs covered by an appropriation bill that has not yet been signed into law are affected. In some relatively rare instances, agencies must suspend all or some of their operations. This is called in the press a Government Shutdown. But it actually is not that stark. Exceptions include soldiers, border guards, and hospital doctors on duty, etc. In 1995-1996 two separate shutdowns occurred, totaling 26 days. Not all agencies were affected because some appropriation bills had been passed. But, the second of the shutdowns, lasting three weeks, resulted in 284,000 (out of 1.9 million) employees being placed on furlough without pay.
How Do Federal Agencies Cope with CRs? Joyce examines studies of the effects of past shutdowns and CRs. He found that the 1995-96 shutdown (1) affected the morale and productivity of federal employees, (2) effected the delivery of public services, such as stoppage in toxic waste cleanups by EPA, and (3) imposed a financial cost of about $1.4 billion in lost productivity, service delays and backlogs (like unprocessed mortgage loans) and back pay for furloughed employees.
But the CRs also have negative impacts because of the uncertainty they pose for agency operations. Because agency managers cannot plan for spending beyond the timeframe of a CR, they have developed ways to cope with the uncertainty and delay. Several of their coping strategies include:
The use and mix of these coping mechanisms will differ, depending on whether the CRs are short-term and multiple, or if they are longer-term covering several months.
What Are Some of the Adverse Effects of CRs? While none of the various coping mechanisms noted above are optimal ways of running an agency, there are other adverse effects caused by the use of CRs that increase costs to agencies:
Joyce says that there are similarly adverse effects on contractors and grantees. For example, the Northeast Missouri Community Action Agency opted to close five satellite offices because of uncertainty as to when or whether it would receive federal funds it had been promised. One effect on the contracting community is that some firms forego doing business with the federal government because of the uncertainty, and as a result there is less competition for federal projects and costs are potentially higher as a result.
Interestingly, Joyce says that CRs have become more challenging in recent years. He says that in the past, the uncertainty created by CRs was over timing – when the money would be available. Now, he says, a parallel uncertainty is the level of funding – how much money would ultimately be available. The combination of these twin uncertainties makes it even harder for agencies to manage.
While there are no easy solutions, Joyce offers some advice to agencies to better manage in an environment of budgetary uncertainty, such as agencies hiring earlier in the year, and delaying renewals of non-recurring contracts and competitive grant awards to the second half of the year. His key advice, though, is “The Congress should prohibit itself from using continuing resolutions!”
Graphic Credit: Keystone Wealth Management