John J. Callahan, was a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution during 2001. He previously served as Assistant Secretary of Management and Budget, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Information Officer of theU.S. Department of Health and Human Services from 1995 until 2001. During that time he also served as Acting Commissioner of the Social Security Administration. In 1997, Dr. Callahan served on the President’s Management Council(PMC). He was appointed vice chairman of the Chief Financial Officers Prior to his work at HHS, Dr. Callahan held a variety of senior staff positions in the United States Senate from 1979 until 1995. During that time he was staff director for the Senate Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations, deputy staff director of the Senate Budget Committee, and chief of staff for Senator James Sasser. Dr. Callahan has also seen service with the National Conference of State Legislatures, the U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), and has been an assistant professor of education and planning at the University of Virginia. Dr. Callahan received an M.R.P. and a Ph.D. in social science from the Maxwell School of Public Administration at Syracuse University. He is also a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. He is currently an independent consultant, with offices in Alexandria, Virginia.